Menya byimbitse imikorere ya Radar

Yanditswe na TWAHIRWA Emmy Kuwa 21/09/2017, Saa 09:59:28 Yasuwe inshuro 1276

Impamvu dushobora kubona iyo ari ku manywa nuko haba hari urumuri ruturutse ku zuba cyangwa se nijoro tukabona bitewe n’urumuri duhabwa na satellite karemano yacu ariyo ukwezi, cyangwa ukifashisha ibikoresho nk’itoroshi n’itara, bisobanuye ko kuvugako iyo nta rumuri nubwo amaso yacu yaba afunguye nta kintu twabona.

Urumuri iyo rukubise ku kintu runaka (nk’inzu cyangwa se umuntu ukuri imbere) bituma ubona icyo kintu.

Nkuko tubikesha Ubugenge (optics) habaho reflection y’urumuri rugakubita mu maso yacu bigatuma tubona.

Dufate nk’urugero ni ninjoro imbere yawe hari igikombe cy’icyatsi, itara rikamurika kuri cya gikombe, impamvu tubona cya gikombe gisa icyatsi nuko urumuri rw’itoroshi (umweru, kuko ubundi umweru ni ihuriro ry’amabara yose) rumurika hanyuma andi mabara yandi arabura hanyuma rya bara risa icyatsi rikaba ariryo ryonyine rigaruka mu maso yawe. Naho impamvu nijoro nta cyintu tubona nuko umukara atari ibara.

 RADAR ikora ite?

Nimba wumva ibi mvuze haruguru, biraza kukorohera kumva uko RADAR ikora, RADAR nayo ikora muri ubu buryo “Yohereza sinyare (signal) zitwa electromagnetic wave, izo sinyare zahura n’ikintu runaka (indege cyangwa se igisasu) zikagaruka (zika reflecta), RADAR ikongera ikazacyira bigatuma bamenya sinyare yacyiriwe icyo isobanura”, iyo rero sinyare zoherejwe ntizigaruke biba bivuze ko ntacyintu kiri mu icyo kirere.

RADAR iba igizwe n’ibice bitandukanye, aribyo igice cyigizwe n’ibikoresho bya electronic cyo gukora sinyare kuri frequency bashaka, iki gice cyitwa (transmitter), ikindi gice cy’ingenzi ni antene yifashishwa mu korehereza iyo sinyare itanzwe na transmitter ikayohereza mu kirere.

Ikindi gice ni receiver iba ishinzwe kwakira sinyare ziturutse mu kirere (ubwo sinyare zitwa echoes ziba zabonye nk’indege cyangwa igisasu, n’ibindi), ibindi bice ni display unit yo kwerekana ibyakiriwe na receiver ndetse nicyo bita duplexer iba ifasha antene kugirango ihinduranye hagati ya receiver na transmitter (impamvu nuko radar nyinshi zikoresha antene imwe mukoreza sinyare no kuzakira, duplexer rero irahinduranya, nimba radar iri kohereza antene ikorana na transmitter, yaba iri kwakira antene igakorana na receiver).

Ibi bice byose bikora icyo tuzi nka RADAR (Radio Detection and Ranging) aho yifashishwa mu kumenya ko hari ikintu mu kirere, hakoreshejwe iyi sinyare iba yoherejwe bashobora kumenya icyo kintu icyo ari cyo, bakamenya icyerecyezo cyacyo, bakamenya ndetse naho giherereye.

Ukuntu bayimenya nuko ziriya sinyare za electromagnetic wave zigendera k’umuvuduko w’urumuri, kuko rero baba bazi igihe sinyare byayitwaye ngo igende inagaruke bafata icyo gihe bagakuba n’umuvuduko w’urumuri bagahita babona aho icyo kintu giherereye. Ariko bakagabanya kabiri kuko nkuko mbivuze sinyare iragenda ikanagaruka. Aho ikintu giherereye = umuvuduko w’urumuri x (igihe cyo kugenda no kugaruka) / 2.

Ntitwabura kuvuga ko RADAR ishobora gukora nka Secondary radar cyangwa igakora nka primary radar. Primary radar zohereza sinyare ubundi hagategerezwa reflection (echo), bivuze ngo ikintu kiba kiri mu kirere ntacyo baba bacyiziho. Primary radar zisaba ko hoherezwa sinyare ifite imbaraga nyinshi kuko bataba bazi target ngo niyihe, ikindi nuko bataba bazi aho target iherereye (ishobora kuba iri ahantu kure uturutse ku butaka). Primary radar nizo zikoreshwa mu bw’irinzi bwa missile ndetse no kumenya indege y’umwanzi aho iherereye.

Secondary RADAR zo bohereza sinyare mu kirere ariko hanyuma target (akenshi iba ari indege), iyo ndege igakoresha akuma bita transponder nako kakohereza sinyare kuri RADAR iri ku butaka. Izi secondary radar nizo zikoreshwa mu kuyobora indege (air traffic control).

RADAR ikoreshwa he?

Ikoreshwa ku bibuga by’indege mu kuyobora indege, RADAR kandi ikaba ikoreshwa mu bwirinzi bw’ibisasu (cyangwa se missile) aho RADAR yohereza sinyare zahura n’igisasu zikagaruka zikakirwa na receiver (iba igizwe n’ibikoresho bya electronic ndetse na software zitandukanye byose byifashishwa mukumenya iyo sinyare yakiriwe icyo aricyo koko) iyo basanze ari missile hahita hoherezwa antimissile igashwanyaguza ya missile. RADAR kandi ikoreshwa mu kumenya uko ikirere kimeze bigatuma habaho itegenyagihe. RADAR zinakoreshwa mu kumenya umuvuduko w’ikinyabiziga gifite moteri, aho hakoreshwa igikoresho cyitwa RADAR gun, hanyuma ikohereza sinyare za electromagnetic wave hanyuma hakoreshejwe ikitwa doppler effect bakabasha kumenya umuvuduko w’ikinyabiziga.

Ntitwabura kuvuga ko hari indege z’intambara zitabasha kubonwa na RADAR, arizo bita Stealth jet kubera ukuntu ziba zikoze bituma iyo sinyare zikubiseho aho kugirango zigaruke ahubwo zirakomeza, bigatuma RADAR ibona iyo indege ari nk’inyoni ntibabashe kumenya neza icyo aricyo.

Source: abc.net.au, wikipedia.com

Emmy Twahirwa