Menya ibigwi n’amateka bya Fidel Castro wayoboye Cuba

Yanditswe na TWAHIRWA Emmy Kuwa 7/10/2017, Saa 20:45:59 Yasuwe inshuro 2181

Iyo bavuze capitalism abenshi dutekereza Leta Zunze ubumwe za Amerika, bavuga communism tukumva icyahoze ari ubumwe bw’aba soviyete (soviet union cyangwa USSR).

Ariko aho tuba twirengagije ibihugu nk’uBushinwa na Cuba, kuko ibi bihugu byombi ntibyahwemye kugaragaza ko byakurikiraga amatwara ya gikomunisiti cyangwa se ushatse wakwita Marxist-Leninist (kuko aya matwara yashyizweho cyane cyane na Karl Max hakongerwaho ibitekerezo by’undi mugabo wagize uruhare mu gukomera kw’aya matwara ariwe Lenin wahoze ari perezida w’uBurusiya), Mao Zedong ufatwa nk’uwatangije People’s Republic of China (cyangwa se uBushinwa nk’uko tubuzi), ndetse na Nyakwigendera Fidel Castro w’ubwe mu mwaka wa 1961 yitangarije ko ashyigikiye amatwara ya gikominisiti.

Reka tuvuge byinshi kuri nyakwigendera Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz, cyangwa se Fidel Castro, umunya politiki w’umunya Cuba wayoboye Repubulika ya Cuba nka Minisitiri w’intebe kuva mu 1959 – 1976 nyuma aza kuyiyobora nka Perezida kuva mu 1976 -2008.

Mu mashuri, yaminuje mu bijyanye n’amategeko muri Kaminuza ya Havana, ishuri ryagaragaragamo kutumvikana hagati y’abanyeshuli. Castro yabaye Perezida wa Cuba kuva ku itariki ya 2 Ukuboza 1976 kugeza ku itariki ya 24 Gashyantare 2008, nyuma aza gusigira ubutegetsi murumuna we Raúl Castro wanatangaje urupfu rwa mukuru we kuri television y’igihugu.

Ubutegetsi bwa Castro, Communism na USA.

Fidel Castro watabarutse kuri uyu wa gatanu tariki 25 Ugushyingo 2016, saa yine n’iminota 29, ntiyahwemye kwerekana ko ashyigikiye cyane amatwara ya gikomunisiti. Ni nyuma yaho afatanyije na Che guevara ndetse na murumuna we Raul Castro babashije kuvanaho ubutegesi bwa Fulgencio Baptista wari perezida wa Cuba mu 1940 kugeza mu 1944, ndetse n’aba mafia bo muri Cuba.

Akijya ku butegetsi yabashije kwirukana aba mafia mu gihugu. Ikindi gikomeye nuko yatangiye kugira umubano n’aba Soviyeti, ibyo ntibyari gushimisha abanyamerika na gacye, kuko icyo gihe hari intambara y’ubutita (cold war) yaranzwe cyane no guterana amagambo hagati ya USA na Soviet Union.

Nelson Mandela na Castro

Fidel Castro n’inshuti ye magara Che Guevara bari bafite imigambi myinshi cyane, ariko irangajwe imbere no kuzamura aya matwara ya gikominisiti ku isi yose. Castro yagiye yohereza ingabo nyinshi mu bihugu nka Angola, icyahoze ari Zaire ubu cyabaye Repubulika iharanira demokarasi ya Kongo, Bolivia (ari naho Ernesto Che Guevara de la Serna yaje kugwa), ndetse yagiye anafasha kurwanya apartheid muri Afurika yepfo.

Comandante Fidel nkuko benshi mu gihugu cye bamwitaga yatumye igihugu cye cyongera uburyo bwinshi bw’ubuvuzi, agabanya umubare w’abatazi gusoma no kwandika mu gihugu cye, yarwanyije ironda ruhu ryari ryaramunze igihugu cya Cuba.

Mu gihe cy’ubutegetsi bwa Comandante Fidel, yahaye inshuti ye “Che” umwanya wo kuyobora Banki y’igihugu, ndetse nyuma aza no kumugira minisitiri w’inganda, Che utarahishiraga ko atemera ubutegetsi n’imikorere ya USA yahise ahagarika byinshi Cuba yakoranaga na USA ahubwo akorana cyane n’abasoviyeti. Ibyo byari bitewe n’ibindi byinshi nk’icyo bise The Bay of Pigs, Missile Crisis, tuza kuvugaho.

Ibi byatumwe USA ihagarika ndetse ifatira n’ibihano by’ubukungu ndetse n’ibya politiki icyi gihugu cya Cuba, twirengagije ibya politiki, iby’ubukungu byakoze cyane kuri icyi gihugu cya Cuba cyane cyane guhera mu mwaka 1991, ubwo Soviet Union yari imaze gusenyuka, kuko mbere yaho aba soviet bari barangajwe imbere n’uBurusiya bageragezaga gufasha iki gihugu cya Cuba mu bukungu, ubuhahirane n’ibindi.

Castro wakundaga kugaragara ari kunywa itabi ryo mu bwoko bwa “Cuban Cigar”.

Cigar iri mu byarangaga ubukungu bwa Cuba, kuko bayigurishaga kenshi. Ariko nyuma y’ibihano USA yafatiye Cuba ndetse na nyuma yaho Soviet Union isenyukiye, ibihugu byinshi byakurikizaga amatwara ya Comunism bigacika intege kuko USA ariyo yasaga nkaho ifite imbaraga bigaragara, uBushinwa nibwo bwari butangiye kwiyubaka. UBurusiya bwari bwaramunzwe na ruswa cyane icyo gihe, ndetse n’ibindi bihugu byakurikizaga communism byasaga nkaho bitsinzwe intambara y’ubutita, ibi byose byakoze kuri Fidel na Cuba ye.

“El bloqueo”

“El bloqueo” cyangwa se “Blockade”, mu kinyarwanda tugenekereje ni uguhagarikwa. Iri ni ijambo risobanura ibihano USA yafatiye Cuba birimo iby’ubukungu, ubucuruzi, n’ibindi, mu mwaka wa 1960, umwaka umwe nyuma yaho Castro akuyeho Baptista bizwi nka “Cuban Revolution” nibwo Fidel yahisemo gufatira inganda zakoraga amavuta zakoreraga muri Cuba ariko ari iza USA, Fidel yazifatiriye nta nikiguzi abahaye, ibyo birakaza USA ihita ifata ibihano byo kubuza ibicuruzwa Cuba yagurishaga muri USA rimwe na rimwe no ku bihugu byari bifatanyije na USA (allies), usibye ibiryo n’imiti, nyuma baje gukomeza banahagarika ibyinjira muri Cuba. Icyo gihe Fidel na Che bahise bakorana na Soviet union, ibicuruzwa byinshi bikaza biturutse mu bihugu by’aba soviyeti.

Ibihano byo ni byinshi cyane harimo nko guhagarika ingendo ziva muri Cuba zijya muri USA, n’ibindi byinshi kuburyo bavuga ko ibi bihano bituma USA ibura miliyari 1.2 za madolari buri mwaka yagakwiye kuba ibona, naho Cuba ikabura akayabo ka miliyari 753.69 z’amadolari.

The Bay of Pigs na Cuban Missile Crisis.

Mu mwaka wa 2006 muri filimi dokumanteri yiswe “638 ways to kill Castro” cyangwa se uburyo 638 bwo kwica Castro isobanura ukuntu USA yagerageje kwica inshuro nyinshi umwanzi wayo w’igihe kirekire, aho haraho bagiye bakoresha abakobwa, itabi yakundaga kunywa, ingofero, ibyo kunywa bitandukanye, amakote yajyaga yambara, n’ibindi, ariko icyamenyekanye cyikaba n’igisebo gikomeye kuri USA nicyo bise “The Bay of Pigs” aho Brigade 2506 yari yaratojwe na CIA (bikaba ari ibiro bishinzwe ubutasi ariko bwo hanze ya USA) yari igizwe n’abanya Cuba ariko batashakaga ubutegetsi bwa Fidel na ba Che, mu minsi itatu yonyine ariko ingabo zari ziyobowe na Fidel na Che Guevara zabashije kwica 100 muri abo barwanyaga ubwo butegetsi, abandi babafata bunyago. Icyo gihe (1961) USA yari iyobowe na John F. Kennedy waje no kuraswa aranicwa mu mwaka wakurikiye (1962).

Bivugwako aba perezida 10 nk’uko basimburanywe ku butegetsi Castro we akiburiho bose bagerageje kumwica, Eisenhower yagerageje kwica Castro inshuro 38, Kennedy inshuro 42, Johnson inshuro 72, Nixon we ni inshuro 184, Carter inshuro 64, Reagan inshuro 197, Bush Sr. inshuro 16 na Clinton ni inshuro 21.

Barack Obama we yagerageje kugarura umubano anabigeraho, nubwo Fidel yari yaravuye ku butegetsi akabusigira murumuna we Raul Castro kubera impamvu z’ubuzima.

Fidel yigize kugira ati: “nimba kurokoka ubwicanyi byari igikorwa cya olimpiki, nari gutsindira umudari wa Zahabu.”

Cuban Missile Crisis cyangwa se October Crisis yamaze iminsi 13, cyari ikibazo hagati ya USA na Soviet Union bitewe n’ibisasu bya Ballistic missile USA yari yashyize mu bihugu aribyo ubutaliyani na Turukiya hanyuma abasoviyeti nabo basubiza bashyira ibisasu nk’ibyo mu gihugu cya Cuba, ibi byose byabaga ninako byerekanwaga kuri TV, gusa byaje kurangira Nikita Khrushchev wayoboraga USSR icyo gihe yumvikanye na Kennedy (USA) washinjwaga na benshi ko atabashaga gufata icyemezo mu bihe bikomeye, bumvikanye ko ibyo bisasu byose bivanwa mw’ibyo bihugu, kandi ko USA itazigera itera Cuba cyereka habayeho kwiyenza bigaragara bya Cuba.

Nyuma y’urupfu rwe benshi mu baturage batuye mu gihugu cya Leta zunze ubumwe za Amerika ariko bakomotse muri Cuba babyukiye mu mihanda bishimira urupfu rwe, ariko urebye abenshi muri bo ni abafite uruhu rwera, ibi byerekana ko Racism (irondaruhu) itaracika ku isi, mu byukuri Cuba ituwe n’ingeri nyinshi, abazungu, abirabura, ndetse nabo twakwita brown (bafite uruhu ruvanze ubuzungu n’ubwirabura).

Kiriya gihe Fidel Castro ajya kujya ku butegetsi Cuba yari yaramunzwe n’ironda ruhu, riyobowe na Baptista. Icyintu Fidel yakoze n’ukurwanya iri rondaruhu, ahangana n’imitwe yari ishyigikiye Baptista y’abazungu yiganjemo aba mafia, benshi barahunze bahungira muri USA, nta muntu ushimwa na bose, ntago bitangaje kuba abo n’ubundi biganjemo abazungu babyukiye mu mihanda bigaragambya, abo benshi bamushinja ko yari umunyagitugu (dictator), abandi bakavugako ntabwisanzure bwa politic buba muri Cuba, ndetse bakavugako yatumye ubukungu bwa Cuba bugwa.

Fidel Castro yagiye afasha Che mu gufasha ibindi bihugu gukora impinduka ibyo harimo ni bya Afurika harimo nka RDC yahoze ari Zaire, yafashije kurwanya Apartheid muri Afurika yepfo, ikindi nuko Castro ajya mu nama y’ubumwe bwabibumbye muri USA yahuye n’umwe mu baharaniye uburenganzira bw’abirabura ariwe Malcolm X, ikindi yahuye na Nelson Mandela, n’ibindi bikorwa byinshi byerekana urukundo Castro yarafitiye abirabura.


      

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